Vitalik Buterin sheds light on Ethereum’s account abstraction journey at EthCC
At the Ethereum Community Conference (EthCC) in Paris, Ethereum co-founder Vitalik Buterin gave an insightful presentation on the history and evolution of “account abstraction” on the Ethereum blockchain.
Account abstraction is a feature in Ethereum that aims to make the system more flexible and easier to use. It essentially allows users to define the security model of their accounts, making Ethereum more adaptable for different use cases.
For instance, this feature allows users to set their own transaction validation rules, such as multi-signature requirements or spending limits. They can also make their accounts compatible with a future cryptographic algorithm.
Buterin described account abstraction as allowing Ethereum accounts to be controlled by smart contract code rather than private keys.
Early days of account abstraction
According to Buterin, the idea of allowing accounts to be controlled by code rather than just keys was present in Ethereum from the beginning.
The Ethereum Yellow Paper outlined two types of accounts – Externally Owned Accounts (controlled by private keys) and Contract Accounts (managed by smart contract code). However, some challenges emerged in the early days of implementing account abstraction.
In the first Ethereum proof-of-concept release, there was optimism that users would adopt multi-signature wallets. However, this did not happen immediately, and exchange deposit detection became harder with multi-sig. There were also complexities with paying miner fees from smart contract wallets. The original vision was for all transactions to be simple “calls,” but issues like non-unique transaction hashes made the problem difficult.
Evolution of account abstraction
The Ethereum community iterated on many account abstraction ideas over the years. Proposals emerged around standardizing signatures, using “breakpoint” opcodes, restricting access during transaction verification, and more. But progress was slow due to the complexities of changing the base protocol and the focus on delivering proof-of-stake. It wasn’t until 2020 that a concrete account abstraction EIP was proposed.
Independent projects like Gas Station Network and Argent Wallet drove further innovation. They found creative ways to enable meta-transactions and abstract accounts using only smart contracts. However, solutions relying on “wrapper” transactions had downsides like high per-transaction overhead.
Most recently, EIP-4337 was proposed to provide a universal account abstraction standard using only smart contracts, avoiding base protocol changes. This allows wallets to integrate through a trusted “entry point” contract, uses “bundler” contracts to batch meta-transactions, and leverages MEV builders to provide fee markets. Extensions like paymaster contracts enable additional capabilities like token-based fee payment.
Future of account abstraction
Buterin acknowledged the increased desire to enshrine parts of account abstraction (like ERC-4337) directly into the protocol for efficiency and censorship resistance. He also noted the importance of ensuring a smooth transition for legacy EOA users and integrating innovations like biometric signers.
Overall, Buterin’s presentation provided a rare insight into Ethereum’s historical struggles to enable advanced account structures. Through years of iteration and industry collaboration, substantial progress has been made on this complex but foundational problem.
As Buterin noted, the work of many talented Ethereum developers has brought the ecosystem much closer to the original vision of seamless and flexible account abstraction.
Interestingly, other protocols like INTU provide an alternative approach to the Ethereum Foundation‘s concept of account abstraction. INTU retains EOAs through local cryptography in the form of distributed externally owned accounts (dEOAs,) thus opening up account sharing, threshold signatures, and private key abstraction without needing more gas-intensive smart contract accounts. INTU announced its public beta at EthCC
The innovation within the Ethereum ecosystem is arguably stronger than ever, with ETH making up 19% of the total crypto market cap, close to the all-time high of 24% set in 2018.